The effect of vertical gardens on temperature and CO2 levels in urban housing

Main Article Content

Agung Murti Nugroho


The city's thermal environment plays an important role in achieving comfort and quality of life, especially during the current global pandemic. Meanwhile, reduction in the green areas has been observed to be continuously causing climate change in cities and one of the proposed solutions to this is by developing a greening system for buildings. This paper, therefore, assessed the ability of vertical garden to decrease air and surface temperatures as well as CO2 levels. The research involved field measurements of these parameters both inside and outside the building along with the modification of the vertical garden distance at 0.5 m and 1 m as well as the plant type including Red Spinach or Amaranthus hybridus, Mustard or Brassica juncea, Celery or Apium graveolens linn, and Cat's Whiskers or Orthosiphon spicatus. The results showed an average decrease of 0.75°C in air temperature, 16.4ºC in surface temperature, and 58.8 ppm in CO2 levels. Moreover, a maximum reduction of 6ºC was achieved in air temperature with Red Spinach plants at 0.5 m, 26.3ºC in surface temperature by the Red Spinach plant, and 124 ppm in CO2 levels by celery plants. In conclusion, a closer distance and darker color of the leaves as well as the Red Spinach species were found to be the main consideration in the application of vertical gardens in urban homes due to their ability to reduce the temperature on the limited land.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nugroho, Agung Murti. 2020. “The Effect of Vertical Gardens on Temperature and CO2 Levels in Urban Housing”. ARTEKS : Jurnal Teknik Arsitektur 5 (3), xx-xxx.


Besir AB and Cuce E. 2018. “Green roofs and facades: A comprehensive review.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 82: 915–939
Bustami BA, Belusko M, Ward and, Beecham S. 2018. “Vertical greenery systems: A systematic review of research trends.” Building and Environment 146:226–237
Charoenkit S and Yiemwattana S. 2016. “Living walls and their contribution to improved thermal comfort and carbon emission reduction: a review.” Build. Environ. 105:82-94
Coma J, Perez G, de Gracia A, Bure S, Urrestarazu M and Cabeza LF. 2016. “Vertical greenery systems for energy savings in buildings: a comparative study between green walls and green façades.” Build. Environ. 111:228-237,
Cuce E 2016. “Thermal regulation impact of green walls: an experimental and numerical investigation.” Appl. Energy 194 247-254, 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.09.079
Currie BA, Bass B. 2005. Estimate of air pollution mitigation with green plants and green roofs using the UFORE model. In: Proceedings of third annual greening rooftops for sustainable Communities Conference, Awards and Trade show, Washington, DC, May 4-6
Dover JW. 2015. Green Infrastructure: Incorporating Plants and Enhancing Biodiversity in Buildings and Urban Environments, Routledge, Great Britain
Edward Ng, Liang Chen, Yingna Wang, Chao Yuan. 2012. “A study on the cooling effects of greening in a high-density city: An experience from Hong Kong.” Building and Environment 47; 256-271
Gratani L, Varone L, Bonito A. 2016. “Carbon sequestration of four urban parks in Rome.” Urban For. Urban Gree. 19:184–193.
He Y, Yu H, Ozaki A, Dong N and Zheng S. 2017. “An investigation on the thermal and energy performance of living wall system in Shanghai area.” Energy Build. 140:324–335,
Jim CY 2015 Thermal performance of climber greenwalls: effects of solar irradiance and orientation Appl. Energy 154:631–643, apenergy.2015.05.077.
Lin HT. 2006. Green architecture. Taipei, Taiwan: Chansbook Published; pp. 16-19
Manso M and Castro-Gomes J. 2015.”Green wall systems: a review of their characteristics.” Renew Sustain Energy Rev 41:863–871.
Medl A, Stangl R and Florineth F. 2017. “Vertical greening systems e A review on recent technologies and research advancement.” Building and Environment 125: 227-239
Purwanto, L. M.F. 2019. “Simulasi transfer panas pada dinding dengan software therm 7.7.” ARTEKS: Jurnal Teknik Arsitektur, Volume 4, Issue 1, :111-115
Raji B, Tenpierik MJ and van den Dobbelsteen A. 2015. “The impact of greening systems on building energy performance: a literature review.” Rene Sustain Energy Rev 45:610–623.
Riley B. 2017. “The state of the art of living walls: Lessons learned.” Building and Environment 114: 219-232
Seyam S. 2019. “The impact of greenery systems on building energy: Systematic review.” Journal of Building Engineering 26:100887
Tan CL, Wong NH and Jusuf SK. 2014. “Effects of vertical greenery on mean radiant temperature in the tropical urban environment.” Landsc. Urban Plan. 127:52–64,
Tudiwer D and Korjenic A. 2017. “The effect of living wall systems on the thermal resistance of the façade.” Energy Build. 135:10–19,
Wang C, Er SS, Rahman AH. 2016. “Indoor vertical greenery system in urban tropics.” Indoor Built Environ. 25:340–356.
Widiastuti R, Caesarendra W, Prianto E and Budi W. 2018. “Study on the leaves densities as parameter for effectiveness of energy transfer on the green facade.” Buildings 8:138,
Wong I and Baldwin AN. 2016. “Investigating the potential of applying vertical green walls to high-rise residential buildings for energy-saving in sub-tropical region.” Build Environ 97:34–39.
Yang J, Yu Q, Gong P. 2008. “Quantifying air pollution removal by green roofs in Chicago.” Atmos Environ; 42(31):7266e73
Zaid SM, Perisamy E, Hussein H, Myeda NE and Zainon N. 2018. “Vertical Greenery System in urban tropical climate and its carbon sequestration potential: A review.” Ecological Indicators 91:57–70