The Journal of Development Economics Widya Mandira (JEPWIRA) is a journal published by the Department of Development Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Widya Mandira Catholic University. JEPWIRA is published in March and November, covering various topics in the field of economics. This is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal that provides a platform for practitioners, academics, and independent researchers to publish articles that contribute to the advancement of knowledge in various aspects of economics.