The spatial implications of living in an extended household based on the socio-cultural values of kinship in Balikpapan, Indonesia

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Wendy I. Hakim
Triatno Y. Harjono
Dalhar Susanto


There is a recent focus on households as residential units but most of the studies conducted rely on demographic and economic perspectives using economic value maximization schemes. The research on the household is considered necessary due to its close relation to family and kinship issues observed in different aspects of life and based on societal diversity associated with certain socio-cultural values. This is most important in Asia, including Indonesia, where extended families and households are regarded as ideal. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the significance of socio-cultural values ​​on the spatial living implications in extended households using qualitative methods, especially ethnography, which involved targeted informants, interviews, and observations. The results showed that the socio-cultural values ​​held by the members of the household are based on the definition of kinship as a valuable bond, desire to share, cooperation, as well as the acceptance and sustenance of tradition. Moreover, the spatial arrangement concerning the allocation, use, and access to rooms based on gender in an extended family was observed to be identical to those in a nuclear family. Meanwhile, additional members are allowed to use different rooms in the house and also to interact with hosts.


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Hakim, Wendy I., Triatno Y. Harjono, and Dalhar Susanto. 2022. “The Spatial Implications of Living in an Extended Household Based on the Socio-Cultural Values of Kinship in Balikpapan, Indonesia”. ARTEKS : Jurnal Teknik Arsitektur 7 (1), 23-32.
Author Biography

Triatno Y. Harjono, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia

Professor of Urban Housing and Settlement

Ph.D (University of Canberra); M.Sc (University of Wales); Ir. (UI)


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